Investigation of the physical model of the skim milk drying process in an electric field

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


BACKGROUND: One of the promising approaches for the intensification of technological processes associated with food products is the use of an electric field. An effective solution to this issue requires the development of a physical model of the interaction of an electric field with a raw material of biological origin, taking into account its characteristics and processes occurring at the macro- and the microlevels.

AIM: To develop a physical model of the interaction of an electric field with a raw material of biological origin, taking into account its characteristics and processes occurring at the macro- and microlevels. Evaluation of the efficiency of using the electric field and their influence on the processed product.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A physical model was developed for the drying of skimmed milk in an electric field using a complex method, including experimental studies and a systematic approach to the processing and substantiation of the results and conclusions.

RESULTS: The electrokinetic phenomenon of microelectroosmosis, which involves the movement of a liquid along the microcapillaries of a porous structure under the action of an electric field was confirmed experimentally. The nature of the kinetics of the process of liquid movement through microcapillaries and its dependence on the parameters of the electric field was experimentally established. The quantitative variation of the height and the rate of rise of the liquid rise along microcapillaries as a function of time was determined for different frequencies of applied electrical impulses.

CONCLUSIONS: The complex model of the convective drying process suggests that the process of drying could be controlled and accelerated by the application of electric pulses due to microelectroosmosis, which activates the transformation of liquid (milk) along the internal (channels) capillaries of the dried particles of skimmed milk powder from the center to its surface.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Nikolay S. Nikolaev

Moscow State University of Food Production

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8624-7829
SPIN-code: 9855-4435

Dr. Sci. (Tech.), Professor

Russian Federation, Moscow

Mikhail Y. Burlev

Firm Maiker

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8258-8714
SPIN-code: 3313-7859

Dr. Sci. (Tech.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Vladimir N. Kornienko

VNIHI – Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems" of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2130-3572
SPIN-code: 4617-0390

Cand. Sci. (Tech.)

Russian Federation, Moscow


  1. Olshanskiy AI, Olshanskiy VI, Zhernosek SV. Issledovanie SVCh sushki tkaney. Vestnik VGTU. 2013;24:55–60. (in Russ).
  2. Smerdov OV. Intensifikatsiya sushki drevesnykh zagotovok v pole elektricheskogo razryada pri ponizhennom davlenii [dissertation]. Moscow; 2002. (in Russ).
  3. Kosarin AA. Tekhnologiya impulsnoy sushki pilomaterialov [dissertation]. Moscow; 2012. (in Russ).
  4. Galkin VP. Sushka drevesiny v elektricheskom pole sverkhvysokikh chastot [dissertation]. Moscow; 2010. (in Russ).
  5. Pakhomova YuV. Some features of the kinetics of infrared drying of lignosulfonate in the foamed state. Nauka bez granits. 2018;10(27):65–68. (in Russ).
  6. Nikulina M.A. Sovershenstvovanie protsessa infrakrasnoy sushki pishchevoy sedobnoy plenki [dissertation]. Saint Petersburg, 2018. (in Russ).
  7. Avanesov VM, Plaksin YuM, Larin VA. Analysis of the thermodynamic perfection of infrared equipment based on the exergy balance. Khranenie i pererabotka selkhozsyrya. 2014;7:47–50. (in Russ).
  8. Kuznetsov A.L. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii konservirovaniya plodoovoshchnoy produktsii s ispolzovaniem elektrostaticheskogo polya [dissertation]. Moscow; 2017. (in Russ).
  9. Makarov A.V. Sovershenstvovanie sposoba konvekivno-radiatsionnoy sushki zhelatina iz otkhodov rybopererabotki [dissertation]. Astrakhan; 2020. (in Russ).
  10. Maksimenko YuA, Feklunova YuS, Pshenichnaya NE, et al. Convective Radiation Spray Dryer for Liquid and Pasty Food Materials. Vestnik AGTU. 2015;2(60):19-23. (in Russ).
  11. Dyachenko EP, Maksimenko YuA. Study of convective-radiation drying of foamed gelatin broth from fish processing waste. Sovremennaya nauka i innovatsii. 2019;2(26):226–232. (in Russ).
  12. Burlev MYa. Intensifikatsiya protsessa sushki obezzhirennogo moloka s ispolzovaniem slabykh elektroimpulsnykh vozdeystviy [dissertation]. Moscow; 2014. (in Russ).
  13. Lipatov NN, Kharitonov VD. Sukhoe moloko. Moscow: Legkaya i pishchevaya promyshlennost; 1981. (in Russ).
  14. Burykin AI, Malyukov SA, Filatov YuI. Study of the movement of fat in the capillary-porous structure of milk. Trudy VNIMI. 1978;46:91–94. (in Russ).
  15. King N. Microscopic examination of powdered milk dispersion. In: XVI Mezhdunarodnyy kongress po molochnomu delu. Moscow; 1961:76–77. (in Russ).
  16. Masters K. Spray Drying Handbook, Fourth Edition. New York: Halstead Press; 1985.
  17. Ilyukhin VV, Burlev MYa. Generation and synchronization of unipolar electric impulses by substances at phase transition of the first kind. In: Fachzeitschrift für die gesamte Fleisch – und Milchwirtschaft. München; 2009;3:16.
  18. Shubenkova EG. Physical and colloidal chemistry: workshop: 2 parts. Omsk: OmSTU; 2016. (in Russ).
  19. Grigorov ON, Kozmina ZP, Markovich AV, et al. Electrokinetic properties of capillary systems. Moscow, Leningrad: AN SSSR; 1956. (in Russ).
  20. Duhin SS, Deryagin BV. Electrophoresis. Moscow: Nauka; 1976. (in Russ).
  21. Reuss F.F. Memories de la Society Imperials des Naturalist’s de Moscow. 1809;2:327.
  22. von Engelhard V. Handbuch der technischen Elektrochemie. Vol. 2. Part 1. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft; 1933.
  23. Kostin NA, Kublanovskii VS, Zabludovskii VL. Pulse electrolysis. Kyiv: Naukova dumka; 1989. (in Russ).
  24. Crookes W. Notes of an Enquiry into the Phenomena called Spiritual during the Years 1870 – 1873. Quarterly Journal of Science. 1874:19.
  25. Widemann G. Pegging Anniversary. Berlin; 1852;87:321–323.
  26. Quincke GH. De constantibus mercuries capillaribus [dissertation]. Berlin; 1858.
  27. Khramov YuA. Physics. Biographical guide. Kyiv: Naukova dumka; 1983. (in Russ).
  28. Hardas N, Daviriyakul J, Foley L, et al. Accelerated stability studies of microencapsulated anhydrous milk fat. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2000;33(7):506–513. doi: 10.1006/fstl.2000.0696
  29. Lykov MV, Leonchik BI. Spray dryers. Moscow: Mashinostroenie; 1966. (in Russ).
  30. Koryagin AA, Voskonyants VG. Dryers and installations. Moscow: TsENTIKhIMNEFTEMASh; 1988. (in Russ).
  31. Taneya S. Electrification of powder. Japan Journal of Applied Physics. 1963;2(12):798–804.
  32. Verevkin VN, Smelkov GI, Cherkasov VN. Electrostatic intrinsic safety and lightning protection. Moscow: MIEE; 2006. (in Russ).
  33. Leb L. Static electrization. Moscow: Gosenergoizdat; 1963. (in Russ).
  34. Static electricity. Available from: Accessed: 16.06.2022. (in Russ).
  35. Bazhanov VL, Gumennikov VB, Pugachev YaN. Measurements in communication technology. Guidelines. Samara: MPS; 2001. (in Russ).
  36. Pizyuta BA. Information-measuring optical devices. Study of the design of the cathetometer KM-8.8. GOST 19719-74. Moscow: NIIGA i K; 1979. (in Russ).
  37. Novopolsky VA. Work with cathode-beam oscilloscope. Practical course. Moscow: Radio i svyaz; 1999. (in Russ).
  38. Shkurin GP. A guide to new measuring instruments. Moscow: Voenizdat; 1966. (in Russ).
  39. Nikolaev NS, Burlev MYa. The process of Tribo charging particles by spray drying. In: Materially IX International Academic-Practical Conference. Molecular Physics. Industry, Poland, 7–15 January. 2013;15:20–24.
  40. Burlev MYa, Ilyukhin VV. Mathematical model of drying milk particles using weak effective impacts. In: Theoretical and practical bases of development processes and devices of food manufactures: scientific papers. 100 years Fedorov N.E. (1901-1974). Moscow; 2001:21–39.
  41. Burlev MYa, Nikolaev NS. Intensivierung des Prozesses von dehydratisierung in elektrischem Feld schwaches Impulse. In: Science and Education. Materials of the III international research and practice conference. Vol. 1. Munich: Publishing office Vela Verlag Waldkraiburg; 2013:88–91.

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
1. Fig. 1. Scanned image from a photo microscope of a skimmed milk powder (SMP) particle.

Download (180KB)
2. Fig. 2. Physical model of SMP microparticle: 1 – lactose in an amorphous state with interspersed protein globules; 2 – milk fat; 3 – inclusion of air bubbles; 4 – microcapillaries (depressions in the form of craters, microcracks).

Download (93KB)
3. Fig. 3. Equipment – spray dryer “LURGI – KRAUSE”: 1 – pipeline for supplying condensed skimmed milk; 2 – drying chamber; 3 – a device for removing skimmed milk powder from the inner wall of the dryer; 4 – high voltage pulse generator (HIVN); 5 – distribution disc; 6 – air distribution column; 7 – dryer cleaning mechanism; 8 – screw; 9 – exhaust fan; 10 – heaters for air heating; 11 – filter for incoming air; 12 – door; 13 – bag filters; 14 – contour electrode – “antenna – emitter”.

Download (134KB)
4. Fig. 4. Experimental installation for the study of microelectroosmosis: 1 – low-frequency signal generator; 2 – cathetometer; 3 – oscilloscope; 4 – glass tube; 5 – capillaries; 6 – quartz sand; 7 – electrodes; 8 – laboratory tripod.

Download (71KB)
5. Fig. 5. Variation in the height of skimmed milk in the capillary depending as a function of time at different pulse frequencies.

Download (102KB)
6. Fig. 6. Variation in the speed of movement of skimmed milk in the capillary depending as a function of time at different pulse frequencies.

Download (115KB)
7. Fig. 7. Variation in the lifting height of skimmed milk in the capillary depending as a function of the pulse frequency.

Download (76KB)

Copyright (c) 2023 Eco-Vector

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies