Vol 90, No 7 (2001)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Problems of safe operation of ammonia refrigeration units


The recent trend towards expanding the scope of application of environmentally friendly natural refrigerants, including ammonia, has caused an increased interest of the refrigeration community in the safety problems of ammonia refrigeration units (ACU). It is known that ammonia has two significant drawbacks: it is toxic at concentrations in air above 0.02 mg/dm3 and explosive at concentrations in air of 16...28% by volume. In large refrigeration systems containing large amounts of ammonia, the possibility of leakage accidents is greatly increased. Therefore, the main task when working on ammonia as a refrigerant is to reduce the ammonia capacity of refrigeration units.
It was precisely this problem and methods of solving it, both technical and economic, normative and legal, that was devoted to the scientific and technical conference held in Moscow on April 11–13, 2001 “On measures to reduce the risk of accidents and emergencies during the operation of facilities using ammonia refrigeration units (AHU), based on the reduction of ammonia capacity and improvement of cold production technology”.
The initiator of the conference was the State Institute for the Design of Refrigerators, Ice Cream Factories, Dry and Water Ice and Liquid Carbon Dioxide Plants “Giprokholod”. It was organized by the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia and Giproholod with the support of VNIHI. The conference was attended by representatives of research and design institutes, universities, manufacturers and consumers of ammonia refrigeration equipment, enterprises involved in automation systems, organizations engaged in the protection of the population.
The interest in the problem of ACS safety of such various departments indicates its relevance and the need to develop a unified approach to this problem, on the basis of which each department will be able to implement effective measures to reduce the risk of accidents at ACS

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):2-3
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Problems of implementation of the system of insurance protection of the population from emergencies

Goldfarb B.A.


Technogenic emergencies (ES) have a significant impact on the health of the population and the quality of life in general.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):4-5
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The main directions of designing ammonia refrigeration plants for the processing industries of the agro-industrial complex

Yanyuk V.Y.


In the future, for the next few years, the main design objects for Giproholod will remain ammonia refrigeration units of large and medium-sized industrial and commercial refrigerators, cold storage plants, ice cream factories, fruit and vegetable bases and other food enterprises (dairy and meat processing plants, breweries, etc.).

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):6-7
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Ensuring the safety of ammonia refrigeration units at food and processing industries

Belozerov G.A., Mednikova N.M., Lapshin V.A., Pytchenko V.P.


Safety in the operation of refrigeration equipment at food and processing industries, where the largest number of large and medium-sized industrial ammonia refrigeration plants in Russia are operated, is determined by the general state of the refrigeration industry, its availability of equipment, the availability of a regulatory framework for the design, installation, commissioning and operation of refrigeration equipment, efficiency work of supervisory authorities and a number of other circumstances.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):8-10
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The main causes of accidents during the operation of ammonia refrigeration systems

Bakhvalov O.A.


The commercial and industrial company "Rosmyasomoltorg" is the largest association of refrigeration enterprises in Russia and includes more than 160 joint-stock companies established on the basis of cold storage facilities of the Ministry of Trade of the RSFSR, with a total capacity of refrigeration chambers of more than 1 million 300 thousand tons, 4 including about 80 ice cream shops, 17 dry ice shops, as well as a number of production sites that produce sausages, semi-finished meat products, fish products, wafers and confectionery, etc.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):11-12
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The main aspects of an integrated approach to expanding the use of ammonia equipment in the refrigeration industry

Ovcharenko V.S., Afonsky V.P.


The choice of refrigerant is one of the key issues in refrigeration technology: by using more advanced working fluids, significant savings in energy costs per unit of cold produced can be achieved.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):13-15
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Refrigerated warehouses and chambers


The condition for success in business for any enterprise that produces frozen and chilled food is the rhythmic and uninterrupted operation of refrigeration equipment. In many ways, this depends on its reliability and the capacity of the refrigerating chamber used at the enterprise. With many years of experience in design, supply and installation, Aircool offers cold rooms and warehouses of any volume and size.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):17-17
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Application of absorption chillers in air conditioning systems

Kokorin O.Y., Kronfeld Y.G., Levin I.E.


At enterprises in many industries, technological processes are accompanied by thermal emissions in the form of steam, condensate and hot water with temperatures up to 80 ° C. In the cold season, such emissions can be used to supply heating and ventilation systems, as is done at some facilities. However, in In most cases, heat is discharged into the atmosphere.The result is environmental pollution, as well as condensation of the vapor-air mixture on the surface of the walls of buildings, which leads to their destruction.Unfortunately, such environmentally unacceptable emissions occur at confectionery factories located in the center of Moscow[ *]. However, many technological processes need cold, and sometimes both cold and heat at the same time. It is most rational to use thermal emissions to generate cold. This process can be implemented using modern absorption refrigeration machines. Such machines are manufactured by TRANE Corporation - one of the world's leading in this direction. The first absorption chiller built by TRANE had a cooling capacity of 200 kW. A long experience in design, research and operation formed the basis for the creation of a wide range of absorption lithium bromide refrigerating machines with a nominal cooling capacity from 390 to 6000 kW.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):21-23
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York Refrigeration Aps and its products


YORK Refrigeration ApS (Denmark) was established in 1999 as a result of the acquisition by YORK International Corporation (USA) of the European companies GRAM, SABO and STAL. Being a division of YORK International (USA), “ YORK Refrigeration ApS (Denmark) fully satisfies the needs of its customers around the world, including Russia, in refrigeration equipment and spare parts. For more fruitful work with Russian customers, a representative office of YORK Refrigeration ApS was opened in Moscow, working in close contact with CJSC YORK International. Such cooperation allows prompt installation, start-up and adjustment of equipment, service maintenance and supply of original spare parts for the equipment of YORK, GRAM, SABRO and STAL companies. In the near future, a warehouse of spare parts is being prepared for opening, which will significantly reduce the time of their delivery.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):18-19
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New equipment presented on the Russian market


TRANE Corporation, represented on the Russian market by TRAIN Technologies LLC, is a recognized leader in the development of equipment for air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The latest high-tech innovations of the company embodied all the accumulated experience in the field of rotational technologies. TRANE's production program focused on them can significantly increase the reliability of the equipment.
TRANE Corporation is also one of the leading companies in the field of absorption refrigeration machines. Today it produces 22 sizes of such machines. The models presented by the company on the Russian market are water-cooling units and machines based on ozone-friendly refrigerants.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):24-25
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Products certified by NP "SC Nasthol" in June 2001

Maksimovsky B.V.


Since its foundation in 1928, LU-VE CONTARDO has been a recognized world leader in the design and manufacture of air conditioning, refrigeration and heat exchange equipment. Thanks to ongoing developments, designing new and improving existing models, the entire range of the company's products meets both the highest international standards and the needs of the most demanding consumers.
The range of manufactured products includes several hundred models: from small - a few hundred watts, to real giants, whose performance exceeds 1 MW. All LU-VE products fully comply with the ISO 9001 standard, which serves as a recognition of the absolute quality and reliability of products .

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):28-29
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Technical means for detecting freon leaks from refrigeration systems

Babakin B.S., Pleshanov S.A.


The appearance of freons in 1930 opened a new era in refrigeration technology. With the beginning of their industrial production (1932), refrigerants of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) groups took a dominant position in the refrigeration industry, and the refrigerants used before (ammonia, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, air) continued to be used only in cases where when it was impractical to replace them with freons. Refrigerants of the CFC and HCFC groups have increased fluidity, due to which the refrigeration oils dissolved in them penetrate into all friction units, reducing wear of parts. But at the same time, refrigerants easily pass through the smallest leaks, and therefore one of the most common malfunctions of freon refrigeration units is a violation of their tightness due to poor installation or repair and improper operation.
For 70 years, many methods and tools have been developed to determine the leakage of freons and check the tightness of refrigeration systems.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):30-31
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Oleg Alexandrovich Bakhvalov is 60 years old


July 1, 2001 was the 60th anniversary of the chief engineer of Rosmyasomoltorg JSC, academician of the International Academy of Refrigeration O.A. Bakhvalov

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):35-35
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Control units for domestic refrigeration equipment


Just as the full-fledged activity of the human body is unthinkable without the normal functioning of the brain, so the operation of any refrigeration equipment is impossible without the use of an electronic control unit. This is his "brain", his guiding center. To ensure a normal cycle of operation of medium and low temperature refrigerated display cases, freezers, monoblocks, chillers, refrigeration units, split systems and other refrigeration equipment, microprocessor control devices are absolutely necessary - special controllers. They are now offered both by numerous representative offices or distributors of foreign companies, as well as by a few Russian instrument makers who successfully survived the 1998 crisis and managed to achieve high

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):36-36
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WURM stands for quality based on half a century of experience in refrigeration automation


WURM systems are designed to automate the control of processes occurring in the refrigeration machine. In addition, these systems automatically collect data on the operation of the installation, which are transmitted from a computer via a modem over communication lines. This, in particular, allows you to control the operation of the chiller from anywhere in the world using the Internet.

Refrigeration Technology. 2001;90(7):38-38
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