Refrigeration Technology

Peer-review quarterly journal.


The journal publish fundamental and applied research and reviews also with informational and analytical articles on all areas of refrigeration, cryogenic engineering and technology, air conditioning and ventilation, automation and control, re-transport, food production processes and equipment, working substances, environmental problems and energy saving.

The journal is the primary source of information on fundamental and applied works of leading scientists.

Founder & Publisher



  • Russian Science Citation Index
  • Agris
  • Google Scholar
  • WorldCat
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory

APC, Publication & Distribution

  • Articles in English and Russian
  • quarterly issues 
  • continuously publication online in Online First
  • Hybrid Access (Subscription or Open Access with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License)
  • No Article Processing Charges and/or Article Publication Charges (APC) 

Types of accepted articles

  • reviews
  • systematic reviews and metaanalyses
  • original research
  • letters to the editor
  • short communications


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Current Issue

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Vol 111, No 4 (2022)

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Prospects for control methods in engineering systems
Mamedov V.M., Arkharov I.A.

This article highlights the prerequisites and natural effects of control method development in engineering systems: (1) a simple deviation and perturbation controller, (2) a fuzzy logic controller with a fuzzifier and rule base, (3) a neural network controller for dynamically adjusting the coefficients of the corresponding links, (4) a discrete neural network controller with a neural approximator and controller. The experience gained by researchers and engineers since the initial description of regulatory principles in 1910, including the level of information technology design, particularly the neural network approach to machine learning and the enormous computing potential of computer devices, now enable the integration of a fundamentally novel method of discrete neural network regulation.

The article’s review aims to identify and demonstrate the importance of experimental and operational data, which must be organized and annotated at the time of collection and archiving. This approach will allow us to rapidly implement neural network controllers in engineering systems, as the most critical phase in their development is involves learning and optimization of neural network architecture.

The article presents the principle of operation, benefits, and drawbacks, and the optimal stages for enhancing a neural network controller based on two neural networks, which form a control strategy while considering the most probable state of the system at the next point in time.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):213-220
pages 213-220 views
Using a heat pipe as a waste air heat exchanger in a central air conditioner
Zharov A.A., Timashpolskiy I.M., Borisenko A.V., Valiakina A.V., Timashpolskiy S.M.

The present study is a review of the literature on heat pipes. The aim is to determine the feasibility of using this type of heat exchanger in air-conditioning (AC) systems. This paper deals with the principle of operation and design of the heat pipe, provides various ways to return condensate, and describes in detail its thermodynamic cycle. Considerable attention is paid to wick structures and working fluids. The restrictions on the heat transfer of heat pipes that affect heat exchanger performance are noted. Design recommendations found in scientific literature and on the websites of manufacturing companies are also described. The diagrams of the heat pipe designs used in central air conditioners and AC systems are given. An example of an installation using heat pipes as a waste air heat exchanger in a central air conditioner is given. Further, the efficiency and thermal power of various methods of heat recovery are compared with the same initial parameters of the flow rate and temperatures of outdoor/exhaust air. A conclusion is reached regarding the advantages of using heat pipes in AC systems for heat recovery. The reason for the rare use of this heat exchanger is also explained. Different methods of heat recovery are compared, and the prospects of using a heat pipe in AC systems are assessed. Recommendations are given on the direction of further research on this topic.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):221-232
pages 221-232 views
Cold accumulators using slurry ice in air-conditioning systems
Kovalyova N.V., Zharov A.A., Borisenko A.V., Valiakina A.V.

This article reviews cold storage technologies that use slurry ice in air-conditioning systems. The authors try to focus attention on an environmentally friendly technology that improves the energy efficiency of air-conditioning systems.

This article discusses systems with coolants, highlights their main types, and lists the main advantages and disadvantages of using two-phase coolants. Because the use of water as a coolant below 0 °C requires additional impurities, the main additives and depressants used in this technology for obtaining ice suspensions, as well as their effect on the properties of an aqueous solution of slurry ice, were considered. The authors studied and described the main methods for generating slurry ice, such as fluid subcooling, direct contact with an immiscible refrigerant, freezing on surfaces, obtaining an ice suspension in a fluidized bed, and «vacuum» ice. For each method, the principles of obtaining slurry ice and the main advantages and disadvantages are described. To more completely understand the design aspects of systems using slurry ice, the authors reviewed methods for storing and distributing an ice suspension in a system. Their scopes of application and the main differences between the use of centralized and decentralized slurry ice storage systems are described.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):233-243
pages 233-243 views
Extraction of helium from neon-helium mixture by the adsorption method
Yang L., Kupriyanov M.Y., Kononova V.D.

Helium is an important natural resource and it has great importance for scientific research. It is currently extracted mainly from natural gas or in large air separation units. Helium and neon are usually separated from an separation column together. In order to obtain pure neon and helium they are further purified. This article discusses the main methods of extracting helium from the neon-helium mixture. Having compared rectification, freezing, membrane separation and sorption methods, the authors concluded that the adsorption method allows separation at relatively high temperature intervals and is more energy-efficient than the other methods considered. The paper presents existing examples of the application of the adsorption method for the purification of helium from neon, which have been implemented in China and in the CIS. An overview of adsorption separation on new adsorbents, both on metal-organic bases and on single-walled carbon nanotubes, is also presented. In the future, the authors will conduct experiments to fill in the data gaps on adsorption and desorption of neon-helium mixture on different adsorbents.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):245-252
pages 245-252 views

Original Study Articles

Scroll profiling for refrigeration scroll compressors
Zharov A.A., Borisenko A.V., Valiakina A.V., Pochatkov S.V., Makarov M.V.

BACKGROUND: Spiral compressors are often used in refrigeration. They have high volumetric efficiency, low noise, high balance, and numerous other advantages. Public information describing the profiling of scroll is insufficient; thus, scroll profiling is the greatest difficulty facing scroll compressor designing.

AIM: A description of the plotting and profiling of the most common types of scrolls of refrigeration scroll compressors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The use of known mathematical relations and tools for developing calculation formulas.

RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS: The necessary mathematical equations are developed and described, and they allow us to profile and construct 3D models of a piecewise circular spiral, an involute spiral, and an Archimedean spiral.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):253-262
pages 253-262 views
Development of highly efficient centrifugal-compressor series for turbocooling machines
Danilishin A.M., Kozhukhov Y.V.

BACKGROUND: Currently, demand for centrifugal-compressor stages with a high pressure ratio is increasing. Such requirements prompt the use of high pressure stages with high circumferential speeds of u2>300 m/s, which leads to increased levels of conditional Mach number and consequently to pressure losses. Work for stage efficiency increases the energy consumption, and the cooling capacity of refrigerating machine increases.

AIMS: This study aims to develop a series of 10 highly efficient high-head model centrifugal compressors with pressure ratio Πc=2.0.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A complex calculation technique developed by the authors is used to increase the efficiency of centrifugal-compressor stages. The method consists of sequential execution of four stages: gas-dynamic calculation, profiling, three-dimensional viscous calculation, and multiparametric optimization.

RESULTS: A series of model centrifugal compressors has been designed with the following range-of-design-mode parameters: conditional flow coefficient is 0,035<Φ<0,12; theoretical head coefficient ψt.d.=0,74; and conditional Mach number is 0,93<Mu<0,96. The estimated isentropic efficiency of the developed centrifugal compressors ranges from 77% to 84% depending on the flow rate of the stage.

CONCLUSIONS: A series of 10 highly efficient centrifugal-compressor flow parts has been developed, which can be used in modern centrifugal-compressor gas-dynamic projects.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):263-271
pages 263-271 views
Zharov A.A.


Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):

Short Communications

Local low-temperature exposure: destruction, preservation, therapy
Pushkarev A.V., Saakyan N.Y.

The impact of local low-temperatures on biological tissues, depending on the temperature reached, can lead to destructive, preservation, or therapeutic effects. This paper takes a unified approach to the transition from general recommendations to personalized recommendations for the dosing of local low-temperature exposure. The exposure process is divided into three stages: planning, provision and control, and an analysis of compliance with the planned dose. Solutions to the problems of heat transfer in cryosurgery and cryopreservation are given to possibly improve the planning stage. In the framework of the first way, two cases are considered. The first case is to improve the accuracy of prostate cryoablation planning. The second case is to compare the effectiveness of various materials of cryosurgical applicators: copper, brass, and artificial sapphire, which can be used to influence and control the freezing zone by optical methods. In the framework of the second way, a case of using local low-temperature exposure to simultaneously preserve the framework of biological tissue and remove a layer of donor cells, called decellularization, is shown for transplantology. The results of the above examples can potentially be used to plan a local low-temperature impact. Thus, new-generation methods and technologies allowing accurate dosing can be developed.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):273-277
pages 273-277 views
Osseointegration after local cryotherapy
Shakurov A.V., Skryabin A.S., Lukina Y.S.

This study aims to analyze the prospects for using local cryotherapy in bone remodeling. Intense cooling causes a response. To evaluate the effectiveness of the cryostimulation of a bone defect in the in vivo model of Wistar rats, defects 2 mm in diameter were formed. The animals were subjected to cryotherapy once or twice a week. The average local temperature of the skin surface decreased from 28 to 14 °C. The temperature inside the biological tissue near the bone defect decreased by 5 °C. Microcomputer tomography and histological analysis showed that a semiweekly cryotherapy is an effective approach. The results showed the promise of using low temperatures in the complex treatment of injuries and bone diseases. This information will be useful for understanding the correlation of the effect and impact of cryostimulation as well as for developing treatment protocols, allowing us to progress toward the possibility of using cryostimulation in practical bone healing.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):279-282
pages 279-282 views
Exposure of human body tissues to development of cryogenic technologies
Butorina A.V.

Various types of physical exposures, including laser, electromagnetic, and cryogenic exposures, are used on living tissues and human organs to suppress pathology or effect destruction. The use of physical exposures is usually empirical. Nevertheless, experience confirms the promise of their use and indicates the need to study the characteristics of living tissues and the development of complex technologies for the application of physical effects. This paper describes the experience derived from their practical applications. They have many advantages over traditional treatment methods, including painlessness, an absence of bleeding and a generally noticeable reaction of the body, and a high functional effect. Local cryoablation using handheld portable cryosurgical devices and liquid nitrogen as a refrigerant (−196 °C) is a practically applicable method for treating simple hemangiomas and allows for obtaining good functional and cosmetic results. All types of simple small hemangiomas of any localization are subject to treatment, regardless of the age of the child. The proposed method allows for completely or partially refusing complex surgical interventions, particularly when placing small hemangiomas on the face, neck, and ear areas, and obtains good results (98%). Preliminary microwave irradiation and the use of a laser allow a 4- to 6-fold increase in the possibilities of cryotherapy along the depth of the hemangioma compared to simple cryoablation. This method retains all the useful features of cryoablation. It is promising for treating cavernous and combined hemangiomas, which have a pronounced subcutaneous part and often complex localization. This approach is potentially useful in other cryogenic applications.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):283-287
pages 283-287 views
Target temperature of local cryotherapy
Saakyan N.Y., Pushkarev A.V.

BACKGROUND: Local cryotherapy (LC) is a promising method for treating various diseases, achieving the effects of anesthesia, and a reduction of inflammation. From a physical viewpoint, the main factor of efficiency is achieving the target temperature on an impact area surface. At the same time, during the procedure, the surface temperature of the tissue should not fall below the minimum permissible temperature for safety.

AIMS: Identification of the ranges of temperature targets and temperature limits in terms of safety parameters based on the results of a literature analysis, performing experiments with the use of an ice bag for cooling the biotissue phantom, and determining the most appropriate impact modes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of experiments was performed on the developed stand to compare two contact cooling modes of LC, depending on the working substance used (sodium chloride solution or a mixture of ice and water). The comparison was conducted according to the following parameters: the time to reach the target temperature on the surface and the temperature at the depth of the model medium. The temperature was measured using resistance thermometers (Pt100).

RESULTS: When cooled with a sodium chloride solution, the surface temperature of the model medium dropped to 10 °C in 6 min of exposure and reached its minimum value of 6.2 °C after 17 min. In the case of using a mixture of water and ice, a minimum temperature of 12.5 °C was reached in 58 min. In both cases, the minimum temperature at a depth of 8 mm was approximately 16 °C, reached in 20 min and 60 min with a solution of sodium chloride and a mixture of water and ice, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the experiments, the most suitable contact cooling mode with the use of an ice bag was determined—using sodium chloride as the working substance at an initial temperature of −18.4 °C, with a possible impact time of 6–25 min.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):289-295
pages 289-295 views
High performance technologies used in Fusheng screw compressors
Spasskiy A.A., Spasskiy I.A.

In the context of adverse changes in the planet’s biosphere, such as environmental and atmospheric pollution, global warming, and depletion of energy resources, increasingly stringent criteria are imposed on manufacturers of refrigeration equipment. The most crucial of these criteria include: (a) enhancement of energy efficiency in refrigeration equipment; (b) reduction in material consumption of refrigeration units, and (c) use of “clean” and safe materials and refrigerants.

The Taiwanese company, Fusheng, has been a global leader in the production of screw refrigeration compressors for several decades. The company’s experts are constantly working to enhance the manufactured equipment and implement the most advanced technologies.

Recently, the most effective steps in this area have been the advancement and perfection of the manufacturing of specialized two-stage low-temperature screw compressors in the SRT series, as well as the production of compact screw compressors with an integrated BSR series oil separator. These compressors feature a variable compression ratio and semisealed screw refrigeration compressors with volumetric capacities ranging from 85 to 1946 m3/h

The SRT compressor series includes six models with first-stage volumetric capacities ranging from 120–759 m3/h and second-stage volumetric capacities ranging from 50–300 m3/h.

Refrigeration Technology. 2022;111(4):297-301
pages 297-301 views

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