Vol 91, No 5 (2002)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Fundamentals of the policy of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology development for the period up to 2010 and beyond


On March 30 this year, the President of the Russian Federation V.V. PUTIN approved the "Fundamentals of the policy of the Russian Federation in the development of science and technology for the period up to 2010 and further perspective".
This document defines the most important directions of state policy in the development of science and technology, the goal, objectives and ways of their implementation, as well as the system of economic and other measures to stimulate scientific and technological activity. Taking into account the importance of this document and the interest of scientists and specialists working in research institutes, academies, universities of refrigeration profile, the editorial board considered it advisable to publish this document in brief.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):2-3
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Russian industry science: modern refrigeration technology and the solution to the problem of healthy eating

Bolshakov O.V.


The Concept of the State policy in the field of healthy nutrition of Russian population for the period up to the year 2005 and approved by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 1У9Я had a great impact on the development of sciences associated with agriindustrial complex (АIС) in accordance with the main directions of the Concept was specified a structure of the subprogram "Perspective processes in processing industries of АIС which is a part of the special federal scientific and technical program "Research and development on priority directions of development of science and technique of civil application”.

Under this sub-program fundamentally new technological systems, ensuring the intensification of processes of chilling and freezing, increasing storage time of perishable foods, reduction of their losses and decreasing the velocity of oxidation processes have been developed.

A cryogenic method of products freezing by liquid and gaseous nitrogen using a non-mechanical flow-through system of cold supply was developed.

The importance of problems of agricultural materials and food products storage is confirmed by the fact that this direction has been included into the list of priority directions of development of science and technology in AIC for the period 2001-2005 years.

At the present time the preparation of the program on solving the storage problems in the processing industries of AIC is being implemented within the federal special scientific and technical program “Research and developments on priority directions of science and technology” for the period 2002-2006, as approved by the Government of the Russian Federation as a result of competition, carried out by the Russian Ministry of Science.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):4-6
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Some aspects of the development of domestic refrigeration technology

Tagantsev O.M.


ОАО “VNHKHOLODMACH- HOLDING” as formed in the year 1994 on the basis of the former VNHkholodmach, maintained continuity both in structure and in the main directions of activities in the field of refrigeration machine-building. Highly skilled engineering personnel — development workers, scientists, research workers - and labour force are on the staff.

The choice of promising directions of development of domestic machine-building is based both on our own scientific achievements and on studying the trends of development of the world refrigeration science and technology, carrying out the conjunctural investigations and prediction of potential users of artificial cold.

These include searching work in the field of new ozone-safe refrigerants, compatible oils, adsorbents and construction materials.

Die company has developed the program of transition to ozone-safe refrigerants, including the creation of new refrigerating equipment, development of new kinds of scroll, screw and centrifugal compressors and on their base — new refrigerating machines and installations.

Modern refrigeration equipment and refrigeration supply complexes on its base require new approach to systems of automatic control. Taking this in account specialists of ОАО “VNHKHOLODMACH” began to Mop and manufacture multifunctional systems of control of refrigerating equipment, the adjustment and tests of which as the part of different refrigerating equipment are carried out in the test facilities of the company.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):7-10
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Decentralized air conditioning system with heat recovery

Galperin A.D.


One of the new developments of the company “Clivet" - a system with a "water loop" which can become an alternative to systems with controlled flow rate of refrigerant and carrying of heat and cold between rooms, lit system with a "water loop" is a decentralized system of air conditioning with the utilization of heat which allows to simultaneously heat and cool different rooms in multi-zone or multifunctional buildings.

The system consists of three main components:

  • monoblock air conditioners with a heat pump and water condenser;
  • water contour (loop) with its pump assembly and accumulation tank;
  • sources of refrigeration (cooling tower) and heat (boiler) Since the optimum temperature of water in the contour is 18...35C, refrigeration can be accomplished in heat exchangers (dry cooling towers) that are taken out.

To fulfill these goals "Clivet" company is producing all the necessary equipment: terminal blocks of different types and capacity - console, channel, cabinet, roof. The monoblock air conditioner is a refrigeration unit including all the elements of refrigeration cycle: compressor, water condenser and evaporator. Pie air conditioner can be installed either directly in a room, like a fan-coil unit, or outdoors, it has a built-in control and provides refrigeration or heating in a particular room. As distinct from most of the individual heat pump systems, the system with a "water loop” can be most advantageously used in the countries with cold climate, for example of Northern Europe, and in Russia. And the economical efficiency of the system with "water loop" is considerably higher, than that of freon multi-zone systems.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):11-13
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TECUMSEH EUROPE/L'UNITE HERMETIQUE hermetic compressors and units


Aircool represents products of TECUMSEH EUROPE / L'UNITE HERMETIQUE - the world-known manufacturer of hermetic refrigerating compressors and units.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):16-16
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Intercoolers with thermal press for two-stage ammonia refrigeration systems

Zhivitsa V.I.


Аn intercooler in a compound system is to cool the discharge ammonia vapor between stages. This is usually done by bubbling process through a bath of liquid ammonia, and inevitable pressure drop- occurred. Slugging is the most dangerous break-downs with ammonia compressors and more frequenth happen at the high-stage e.g. after an intercooler. The direct contact evaporating cooling device and the heat compression effect has been used instead of bubbling open (and closed) type intercooler. Hit piping diagrams have been shown: for single unit, for several compressors with individual and commn intercooler, for compound system and for seasonal low temperature supply when some addition compressors are possible to use.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):18-20
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New Russian scroll compressors

Ibragimov E.R., Sadykov M.T., Paranin Y.A., Karchevsky A.M.


The authors present the design and characteristics of new Russian scroll compressors. It is shown that on the basis of these compressors their low temperature modification can he developed.

The range of modified scroll compressors being developed, covers refrigerating capacities from 5 to 50 k W.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):22-23
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New Alfa Laval air condensers

Grigoriev S.K.


Alfa Laval offers the new AlfaGreen series of air condensers and fluid coolers for refrigeration and air conditioning applications.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):26-26
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Ammonia refrigerating machines for liquid cooling based on Grasso screw compressor units


The FX P series of chillers includes 18 types. Each machine includes an internationally proven Grasso screw compressor. The range of cooling capacity of chillers FX P 200 ... 5800 kW at a temperature of the cooled fluid output 6 º C. Only ammonia is used as a refrigerant because it is environmentally friendly.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):27-27
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Experience of operating the first batches of ATKA-445-8000 and ATKA-545-5000 ammonia refrigeration turbo-compressors

Shcherbakov R.Z.


OAO Nizhnekamskneftekhim is operating ammonia turbo-compressor units ATKA-545 and ATKA-445 of high capacity since June 1975. The machines with the first serial numbers came to the construction site in 1974.
The decision made by the designer (Giprokauchuk) to implement domestic equipment instead of expensive imported equipment in multi-tonnage production of synthetic rubbers was justified. Technical and repair base, material and human resources allowed performing this task at Nizhnekamsk petrochemical plant. As time showed, mastering of new refrigeration compressors in other regions of the country was very difficult. The technological chain of petrochemical productions is an interconnected structure, if one of its links is unstable, the whole production stops. Timing of mastering the new equipment was complicated by the specifics of production. There was no experience in installation, adjustment and operation.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):28-28
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The Art of Freezing (Güntner)


The efficiency of rapid freezing of prepared foods or bakery products depends not only on the capital investment and operating costs, but also on the technological processes and the quality of the frozen products. Since foods consist mainly of water, the freezing point is determined by the concentration of free salt, carbohydrates and other elements contained in it.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):30-31
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B.S. Babakin, V.A. Vygodin, V.N. Kulagin, S.B. Babakin. Tutorial "Diagnostics of Throttling Devices of Small Refrigeration Installations". - Ryazan: Uzorochie, 2000. - 124 p. Circulation 1500 copies

Semenov B.N., Odintsov A.B.


The new book, prepared by a team of authors, is of interest to refrigerators, students and even people unfamiliar with the intricacies of operating or repairing small refrigeration and air conditioning systems, but who have such refrigeration units in their household. The book consists of introduction, 6 chapters, conclusion and references.

Refrigeration Technology. 2002;91(5):36-36
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