Vol 92, No 3 (2003)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Together toward a common goal

Vygodin V.A.


From the very first words the reporter clearly defined the problems to be discussed by the congress: tendencies on the world, Russian and regional ice-cream markets; product quality; creation of mutually beneficial relations between ice-cream producers and trading organizations. The general results of the work of the food industry enterprises of the country, including ice-cream producers, were presented in the report. It was noted that in 2002 376 thousand tons of ice cream were produced, which is by 12 thousand tons or 3,4% more than in 2001.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):2-4
pages 2-4 views

Ice Cream and Cold World 2003


On February 11-14, 2003 the First International Specialized Exhibition "The World of Ice Cream and Cold 2003" took place in Pavilion No. 57 of the All-Russian Exhibition Center (Moscow). It was organized by the Russian Ice Cream Association and Rosmyasomoltorg with the support of the RF Ministry of Agriculture, the RF Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, the RF Ministry of Property Relations, the RF Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Russian Union of Commodity Producers, the National Consumer Protection Fund and with the assistance of the Moscow Government and industry unions and associations. General sponsor of the exhibition is Prostor L. On the area of more than 7000 m2 exhibitors from 38 regions of Russia and 14 foreign countries presented their products to more than 183 people.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):4-5
pages 4-5 views

Natural refrigerants as an alternative to global warming

Tsvetkov O.B., Laptev Y.A.


In the year of the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg the International Scientific and Technical Conference "Natural Refrigerants - an Alternative to Global Warming" was held in St. Petersburg State University of Low Temperature and Food Technologies (SPbSUNiPT) on February 4, 2003. The Conference was organized by the SPbSUNiPT, the International Academy of Refrigeration (IARC), and the Working Group "Properties of Refrigerants and Heat Carriers" of the RAS Scientific Council on Problems in Thermal Physics and Heat Power Engineering. Among the participants of the Conference are: International Academy of Higher School Science, Odessa State Academy of Food Industry, Institute of Energy Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Mogilev State Food University (Belarus), JSC "Shark Shaboda" (Uzbekistan), JSC "VNIIholodmash-Holding", JSC "Rosmyasomoltorg", Non-profit City Organization "Moscow Security Fund", Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technical University), Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman. N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow State University of Food Biotechnologies, Moscow Compressor Plant, VNIKHI, CJSC Khladoklimattekhnika, Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology named after N.E. Bauman, Moscow State University of Food Biotechnology, Moscow Kompressor Plant, VNIKHI. The following companies are involved in the project: Moscow Compressor Plant, VNIICh, Khladokhmatekhnika, Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, M.V. Lomonosov, TRANZAS - Electronic Technologies, VNIPIET, Airkul, Industrial Engineering Safety Center, York International, Giproribflot, Military Engineering and Space University named after Mozhaysky, V.N. Dzerzhinsky, Lomonosov Moscow State University, V.A. Kuznetsov, etc. Mozhaisky, JSC "Bitzer CIS", JSC "St. Petersburg Center of Refrigeration Equipment", St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicine, specialized magazines.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):6-8
pages 6-8 views

Global warming and the cooling alternative

Tsvetkov O.B.


Soviet scientists in the 50s of the last century called attention to the extreme sensitivity of the atmosphere of the Earth to human activities and to the uncontrolled increase of greenhouse effects. The level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, particularly CO2, will approach the dangerous for the climate line by the end of this century. As for the present, methane will play large role, yet not revealed, in the warming. For Russia the global warming can give even positive energy effect. However, in is difficult to forecast the fate of Europe in general. Transition to natural refrigerants with the purpose to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases in Russia should be implemented with caution.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):9-12
pages 9-12 views

Refrigeration cycle analysis on natural refrigerants - substitutes for R12, R13 and R22

Belyaeva O.V., Grebenkov A.Z., Timofeev B.D.


Thermophysical and ecological characteristics of natural refrigerants — substitutes for CFC and HCFC — are considered. Main characteristics of the refrigerating cycle during operation on the substitutes of R12, R13 and R22 are presented. Vivid comparison of substituting refrigerants by their volumetric refrigerating effect and the temperature in the compressor outlet is given. In conclusion, recommendations on the use of particular alternative refrigerants are presented, and in is shown that it is impractical for the countries of CIS to take out of use HCFC refrigerants before the appointed time (prior to 2030).

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):13-17
pages 13-17 views

HolCon software package for calculation of characteristics and optimization of parameters of heating and cooling systems

Kalnin I.M., Hasan E.S., Sidenkov D.V.


In connection with the introduction of combined systems of heat and cold supply CSHC into engineering provision of buildings and not adequate development of the methods of their design a program complex Holcon is being created for designing with the aid of PEVM the optimum in composition and technical and economical signs CSHC. A universal mathematical model CSHC based on vapor-compression refrigerating machines has been developed. Principles of obtaining the output characteristics for each subsystem and the whole CSHC according to the results of optimization on the criterion of economy or efficiency have been considered. The result of this calculation of characteristics of the compressor subsystem for different refrigerants during operation as a refrigerating machine and a heat pump is given. The program complex allows | be switched to the instruments of the test bench, to make collection, primary processing of tin results of measurements, and then to make computations using the whole massive of experimental data. Use of the complex for educational purposes is planned.


Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):20-24
pages 20-24 views

Grasso single-stage screw compressor units


As a result of more than 30 years of experience, design and implementation of many promising innovations, a new generation of "GRASSO" screw compressor units was created. They were developed specifically for industrial refrigeration plants taking into account the operating conditions in Russia units FMS3-900, FMS3-1800 and FMS3-2500, as well as the requirements of Gosgortechnadzor of the Russian Federation.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):25-25
pages 25-25 views

Methodology for determining the explosion hazard level of a compressor unit of a refrigeration plant

Anufriev M.E.


A technique for the determination of level explosion hazard of a refrigerant plant compressor unit by relative power potential has been offered. A Table is presented with the help of which by relative power potential of the unit the class of іts explosive hazard is determined.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):26-27
pages 26-27 views

Process air conditioning for meat processing shops


Recently in Russia, with the development of market relations, the output of various types of meat semi-finished products, sausages and frankfurters has significantly increased. In this connection requirements to sanitary and hygienic conditions in industrial premises of meat industry enterprises increase. These conditions can be achieved by means of technological air conditioning systems installed in the respective shops.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):28-29
pages 28-29 views

Advantages of using AKD frequency converters in refrigeration engineering

Fetisov Y.Y.


Changing the power frequency is the most efficient way to control the speed of induction motors, which are widely used in refrigeration applications. Danfoss offers two series of frequency converters, the AKD 2800 and AKD 5000, specifically designed for refrigeration. They are used to modify the capacity of:
- compressors;
- condenser fans; dry cooler fans; cooling towers;
- evaporator fans;
- pumps of the secondary cooling circuit.
Let's consider the main examples of their use in more detail.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):30-31
pages 30-31 views

New powerful liquid coolers by LU-VE


LU-VE Group has successfully started production of the new Big Giants large capacity fluid coolers of the SHLD series, which were first officially presented at the IKK-2002 International Exhibition in Nuremberg. Customers have been waiting a long time for these models to enter series production. The most powerful chillers have already been purchased by several international companies and installed at large industrial facilities (e.g., in Germany).

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):33-33
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Technoblock equipment for banana gasification chambers

Ivlev V.I.


Since the early 1990s, bananas have become an integral part of the range of fruit and vegetable products sold in Russia. It is one of the cheapest and most affordable imported fruits for the population. However, it is necessary to ensure a number of conditions for bananas to reach the consumer of appropriate quality.
From the field bananas are transported to Europe unripe when they are still green and the fruit contains high amounts of starch. In this condition, bananas can be stored for quite a long time at certain temperatures and humidity. Before marketing they should be brought to consumer ripeness, when the fruit acquires the necessary taste, color, consistency, and aroma.
The process of artificial ripening requires a very precise temperature and humidity conditions, a specific, time-varying composition of the gas environment. It is carried out in banana ripening chambers, where the biochemical processes necessary to obtain a quality product take place.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):34-35
pages 34-35 views

Energy savings in the operation of refrigeration systems

Novozhilov Y.N.


At present, the cost of energy resources, in particular electricity, has increased sharply, so the problem of saving electricity has become particularly important. Analysis of the device and operation of refrigeration units allows us to conclude that it is possible to achieve energy saving by implementing simple and costless measures.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(3):44-44
pages 44-44 views

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