Vol 92, No 5 (2003)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Tenth anniversary general meeting of the International Academy of Refrigeration


The jubilee meeting of the International Academy of Refrigeration (IAR) was held on April 22, 2003 in St. Petersburg State University of Low Temperature and Food Technologies.
The agenda of the meeting included the following questions:
Report of the President of the IAR;
Report of the Chairman of the Auditing Commission;
Messages and congratulations from representatives of national and regional branches of the IAR;
Election of the IAR President and Vice-Presidents;
Election of new members of the IAR.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):2-2
pages 2-2 views

International Academy of Refrigeration - a unique fusion of science, technology and production

Baranenko A.V.


The past 10 years have been significant for the refrigeration and food industries: prolonged transition of Russia to market economy, sharp decline in production and, as a consequence, dominance of imported refrigeration equipment and "cheap" food products; continuing "refrigeration revolution" initiated by the decrease of ozone in the stratosphere and global climate warming; differentiation of refrigerators into synthetic and natural refrigerants supporters. It is all the more encouraging to realize that the International Academy of Refrigeration, a unique fusion of refrigeration and food professionals, has succeeded in its formative period and is now on the rise.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):3-5
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Development of cryology in the Moscow Regional Branch of the International Academy of Refrigeration

Arkharov A.M.


A look back at the recently ended 20th century clearly reveals areas of science, technology, engineering, and human practice that are heavily dependent on cold and the development of low-temperature technology. These are the production, storage and transportation of food; the production, liquefaction, transportation and use of industrial and natural gases and air separation products; climate engineering and life support; medicine and ecology; a variety of fields of scientific inquiry and research in energy, electronics, physics, chemistry, metallurgy, transport engineering, aviation, space, biology and other fields. Today there is a huge and extremely important field of scientific, practical and commercial activities - cryology. The use of low temperatures in traditional and new fields of equipment and technology is constantly increasing. In Moscow alone there are more than 600 enterprises of this profile. Many of them, such as Cryogenmash, Geliymash, NIIkhimmash, VNIIkholodmash-Holding, VNIIkhimmash, Nauka, are widely known in the world. Now many new, young, but already reputable firms have emerged: Ostrov, Chrom, Cryoservice, Scaten, Aircool, Thermocool, Enei, Refco, Veza, Atek, Khimholodservis, Gazkholodtekhnika, Hamilton-Nauka, etc. This was greatly facilitated by the conditions of the domestic market and highly qualified personnel trained in the leading Moscow universities: Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Rector I.B. Fedorov), MPEI (Rector E.V. Ametistov), MSUIE (Rector M.B. Generalov), MSUPB (Rector I.A. Rogov). This article describes some developments carried out in the Moscow Regional Branch of IAR in recent years, which, in the author's opinion, are of significant importance.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):6-12
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10 years in the service of science

Grezin A.K., Karelin P.K., Gryaznov B.T.


Despite the crisis phenomena experienced by our science and industry in the last decade, at present there is a tendency for the recovery and rise of both industry and scientific, design and technological areas. This was largely due not only to the ability to survive under extreme economic conditions, but also to the ability to unite scientists, engineers and experienced specialists into a public organization - the Russian Federation Academy of Refrigeration, later transformed into the International Academy of Refrigeration. Established in 1993 by efforts of Leningrad and Moscow scientists it didn't allow refrigeration and cryogenic industry specialists to "scatter into secluded corners" and wait for their destiny.
Establishment of the Academy helped to bring together highly qualified scientists and specialists working in the refrigeration and related industries of the national economy.
The first years of the scientific and organizational activity of the Academy showed that the idea of its creation was absolutely correct. Scientists from near and far abroad "reached out" to it and it became international.
An important stage in the onward development of the Academy is the organization of its own journal "MAKh Bulletin" which celebrated its 5th anniversary in 2003. The possibility of operative information exchange about the results of interesting scientific, marketing, economic research, design and technological developments has appeared.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):13-15
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Ukrainian branch of the International Academy of Refrigeration: unity of national and industry-wide interests

Chumak I.G.


On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the International Academy of Refrigeration we would like to note the great work it has done to unite the efforts of specialists in the field of artificial cold from many countries around the world to solve the problems of energy, ecology, refrigeration engineering, agroindustry and transport. Now the Academy performs coordination functions by informing about new scientific problems and their solutions, organizing conferences for discussion of results of works of the IAC members. A lot of work is done by academicians and corresponding members of the Academy's national branches, who solve urgent problems of industrial regions under extremely difficult conditions, and in most cases with no budget financing.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):16-17
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Selection of optimal parameters of the heating and cooling system of a residential building

Hassan E.S.


An example of the calculation of combined system of heat and refrigeration supply for an apartment house under the conditions of hot climate (Cairo, Egypt) is given. The components of the reversible vapor-compression machine suggested for this purpose were selected according to the results of the calculation of energy and economic efficiency of the machine. Energy optimization was carried out by means of comparison of the exergy efficiencies of different thermodynamic cycles on several refrigerants. With the economic optimization, dimensionless costs were compared for the case of different completeness of the machine. The results of the optimization calculations are given.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):18-21
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Danfoss: 10 years in Russia

Nyrkovskiy D.


In 2003, Danfoss is celebrating its tenth anniversary in Russia. After 10 years, we would like to take stock of Danfoss' activities in Russia and tell our readers about our plans for the future, but first a few words about the history of Danfoss.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):26-29
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Grasso International liquid chillers


The FX P series of chillers includes 18 types. Each machine includes the world-proven Grasso screw compressor. The FX P chillers range from 200 to 5,800 kW at an output temperature of 6 °C.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):30-30
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Peculiarities of obtaining ice water using bulk ice accumulators

Markov V.S., Lazarev A.G.


Ice water is widely used as an intermediate cooling medium in food processing plants.
There are no alternatives to such a cheap and proven medium yet. As for methods and equipment to produce ice water, there have been many recent changes and improvements. Refrigeration stations for ice water production in ice storage tanks with bulk ice, introduced into the Russian industrial refrigeration market by "FABS Engineering", should also be attributed to the innovations.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):33-35
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Frost tunnel TST


TST tunnel freezers with cyclic carts are used in ice cream factories, reception and freezing of mushrooms and berries, in meat and fish processing plants and other food industry enterprises.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):38-39
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Nordway coolers - time for modern technology

Yanushkevich D.V.


For more than 5 years Roshal Chemical Plant "Nordics" has been developing, producing and selling special low-freezing fluids for various industries.
We present the first acetate-based NORDWAY coolant in Russia for use in refrigeration systems of different cooling capacity in the temperature range of +40...-50°С.

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):46-47
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Ice cream frosting production - a complete solution


This article is addressed to entrepreneurs and managers of enterprises that use chocolate icing of different properties for the production of ice cream, cottage cheese, confectionery products, etc., as well as those who are going to produce icing and chocolate to meet the demand for them in their region.
There is a perception that the organization of the production of icing is very complex and costly, requires considerable investment, professional training of personnel and large areas. In fact, this is far from it. Information in this article is based on real experience of different kinds of glazes and chocolate production in 125 countries on four continents, including 40 factories in Russia. Equipment supply and technological support for many such enterprises is provided by the representative office of LADCO (Great Britain).

Refrigeration Technology. 2003;92(5):48-49
pages 48-49 views

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